My special thanks to the patrons of my YouTube channel and Website, “Ham Radio Answers.” These patrons provide a fixed amount every month via my Patreon page. You can visit Patreon and become a patron yourself!
Your name and photo can be here too!
Become a patron! Fund me at the level of $5 or $10/month or more via my Patreon page. (Please note that I am not a 501(c)3 organization and this funding is not tax deductible.)
Patrons at the $20/month level
Bob Slovick, ADØHI, became a patron on 19 April 2017, and upgraded his patronage on 23 Aug 2017. Thanks Bob!
Justin Smith became a patron on 20 Feb 2019. Thanks, Justin!
Joseph Ducar, KJ4QFV
Joseph Ducar, KJ4QFV became a patron on 26 Aug 2018 and upgraded to $20/mo on 20 May 2019. Thanks John!
Linwood Campbell, K2LLCLinwood became a patron on 23 March 2019 and upgraded to the $20/month level on 20 June 2019. Thanks, Linwood! He writes, “My father-in-law got me interested in ham radio initially. I thought it might be something fun we could do together. While he never got past the listening stage, the ham radio bug got me! My primary interests are HF and DMR. I belong to the local club here in Central Virginia which provides communication for a number of local events including the Virginia 10 miler. Participants come from all over the world to run in this race. I belong to the “Joker’s Net” (weekday mornings 7:40 Eastern on 3.934) and am net control on Tuesday mornings. My station includes an Icom 7410, a Toyko Hy Power (low power version) amp, an Anytone 868 (using an OpenSpot2) and a Kenwood TH D72A along with assorted other stuff. For APRS I use either a Byonics TinyTrac with an Icom IC 2300 while in the truck, or the Kenwood 72A with a small amp while on my 2010 Honda Goldwing.”
Tim Staley, K5TGSTim, K5TGS, became a patron on 1 Jan 2019 and upgraded to $20/month on 20 June 2019. Thanks Tim! He writes, “I first became interested in radio when I was in high school through SWL with a Hallicrafters WR-1000 receiver. I am retired so I have plenty of time for radio activities. I enjoy public service events in North Texas, and belong to the Denton County Amateur Radio club. I also serve as weekly net control stations for the 7290 net on every Tuesday, the RV Radio net on Sunday evening and DMR on Texas Statewide every fourth Wednesday. My station includes an Elecraft K3s, KAP500 amplifier with their tuner. I also enjoy DSTAR and DMR.”
Brad Rich, N6GR
Brad Rich, N6GR, became a $20/month patron on 11 Aug 2019. He writes, “Ever since observing a Hammarlund HF receiver while I was in 8th grade, I have loved the magic of electromagnetic waves and Ham Radio. I built my first Heathkit during 1974, having earned a Novice license. During the ’90s when I could afford the hobby and earned more advanced grants, I worked my way to Extra Class when you had to pass a 20 word per minute code test leading to equipment that allowed me to chase DX. I am soon retiring and installing a 70-foot tower and probably a SteppIR 6 thru 40 meter three element beam. I have alway dreamed of a horizontal gain antenna at some height. Aviation has always been in my blood as well having earned FAA Commercial, Instrument, Multi-Engine and Flight Instructor ratings. I do not often fly these days. I find relaxing in my shack more comfortable, and radio communications still provides the magic.” Thanks, Brad!
Patrons at the $10/month level
Melinda and Robert Koster
Melinda Koster, and Robert Koster KG5NWD, KG5NWE, became patron on 18 April 2017. Thank you for your support! When I told Melinda she’s my very first patron via patreon.com, she replied, “Hope you have a bunch more soon! We (KG5NWE and KG5NWD) almost have our HF rig and antenna up – working on CW as well. Wish there were more hours in the day to watch – you are very encouraging!”
Rodney Everage, KE0PHS
Rodney Everage, KE0PHS became a patron on 11 Feb 2018. Thanks Rodney!
Dave McKay, WB6EAR, became a patron on 2 Nov 2017. Dave writes: “Thanks for the videos! Your Tech and General series helped me pass my exams!! I have learned more from your channel than any others I watch on Ham Radio. About me ….. I was introduced to Ham Radio and Shortwave in the mid 70s but never had the ability to delve to deep into either one. Since then i have come across Ham several times but it wasn’t until recently that it came up again and I decided to go for it. I am interested in the entire hobby but most interested in QRP. I find it very interesting how you can send a small signal half way around the world and talk to someone else. I am somewhat limited so far. I haven’t figured out what kind of antenna to use for my shack. I am leaning towards a vertical so I can get the most bands possible with a single low profile antenna since I live in an HOA with a small patio between 2 buildings covered in stucco. For the moment I am somewhat relegated to handheld contacts. I have been listening to the WinSystem from time to time. I haven’t really spent much time on the air as yet. I am still learning about the hobby.”
Daniel Sullivan, became a patron on Sept 2016 and upgraded to $10/month on 4 Nov 2019. Thanks Daniel!
David Whiteside, N9BSA
David writes: “Dave your video are great and i greatly appreciate your program I am just a Ham Radio that thinks your video and your sharing of knowledge is great. No need to put my name anywhere. I will tell you I was a MARS military operator since 68 and a Technician since 95 when I got tech lic. at the Boy Scout Jamboree. Last year I upgraded to general after watching your video and am working on my extra. 73’s N9BSA”
Sean McGrath, W1SMM
Sean McGrath, W1SMM, became a patron on 6 July 2018 and upgraded to $10/month on 26 March 2019. Thanks Sean!
Mike McNeice became a patron on 27 April 2019. Thanks, Mike!
Tim Clark became a patron on 4 May 2019. Thanks, Tim! He writes, “My Call is in memory of my good friend Mark, KD8NKX who went SK shortly before I passed my Tech & Gen in 2015. I haven’t done much in Ham since then, but that is changing this year as I push the home build along and get a shack together with HF at the center of it all. Thanks for all the fantastic work you do to help us Hamlets get into the hobby. It was your Study Guide videos and lots of practice exams that helped me pass the T & G exams and I hope to add “/AE” to my Call later this Summer with the same study regime.” Best of luck with your studies, Tim!
Alan Thompson, W6WN
Alan became a patron on 14 July 2019. He writes, “In 1962, I earned a Novice ticket at age 11. A few months later, I upgraded to Technician. I’d always wanted an advanced license, but couldn’t master the skills needed. With high school, I discovered cars and girls and left radio behind. After a 55-year hiatus and a career in satellite communications, I became interested in ways to help California fire fighters deployed beyond the reach of cell services to stay in touch with their families. That quickly led to a headlong dive back into radio in 2017, only this time I wouldn’t settle for less than a top ticket. Nowadays when I’m not working (or gabbing on my radio), I’m busy talking before Civic Groups, Homeowners’ Associations, Fire-safe Councils and Ham Clubs about “Radio For The Rest of Us” community safety programs using FRS and GMRS radios.” Alan, thanks for your patronage and for all the good work you do!
Rodney became a patron on 11 February 2018. Thanks Rodney!
Joe W Ruffer
Joe became a patron on 26 November 2019. Thanks Joe!
Patrons at the $5/month level
Richard Broman became a patron on 10 June 2019. Thanks Richard!
Michael Skurka, K5MSK
Michael Skurka, K5MSK, became a patron on 5 June 2019. Thanks Michael! He writes, “I’m a life-long electronics hobbyist and always wanted to get my “ticket”. Finally, in the summer of 2013, I became a licensed operator, passing both Technician and General exams. I am now studying for the Amateur Extra exam. I serve as the radio “expert” for the company where I work, participate in DHS SHARES, and have started a club there to encourage my colleagues to obtain their licenses. When I’m not watching Dave’s latest videos (and learning more!), I participate in local Amateur Radio Emergency Services (ARES), serving as one of several Net Control operators for weekly training nets. Many thanks to Dave for his continuing contributions to Amateur Radio. 73 to all, DE K5MSK.”
Patrick Clark, KM4EZ,
Patrick Clark, Km4ez, became a patron on Nov 2019. He writes,”I started my ham radio exploration a few years ago after having health problems and needing an interest that would be good for a more sedentary life style. Read some books and found youtube. Then shortly after that, I found Dave, doing his thing. This was a great awakening. Dave’s videos inspired me to work toward getting my ticket and setting up a station. Between my reading and studying with Dave, I now have my Extra license and a station. I could never have done this on my own. Even with Dave’s help it still took me several years and three tries to pass the Extra test. I am just now helping to support Dave. I wish I could do more, but, I’m retired and on a fixed income. Maybe one day I will be able to do more to help others in their quest for a ham radio license as Dave does. But for now, thank you Dave. Thank you ever so much. You are a treasure to us ham radio newbies!” Thanks Patrick!
Michael Allen Wilson,
Michael Allen Wilson, became a patron on Jan 2019. Thanks Michael!
Richard Edge, VE7RXE
Richard Edge, VE7RXE, became a patron on 22 May 2019. He writes, “I have only been licensed for a year. In fact a year ago this past week. I had wanted to get my licence since I first came across ham operators while tuning around the shortwave bands in my latter teen years. I became an electronics technician after building crystal radios and other circuits in my youth. My job and other life issues unfortunately took up most of my time and I ended up putting off getting licensed after retiring. It became a no brainer then since I now had all kinds of time on my hands. I took a course with a local club in April last year and obtained a level here in Canada called Basic with Honours which gives me access to all HF and VHF and above frequencies. This level requires a 80% or better score. Below that is similar to your Technician Class. I do aim to learn CW and go for the Advanced Licence level after gaining a bit more on air experience. I have yet to make a contact on HF due to HOA antenna challenges, but I will persevere.” Thanks, Richard!
Richard Konrad, KO1RNK
Richard became a patron on 23 May 2019. He is a former firefighter and college teacher, now working in public health. His agency has trained a number of Hams for emergency communications. Thanks, Richard!
Richard Hall, became a patron on July 2019. Thanks Richard!
Richard L Nesbitt,
Richard L Nesbitt, became a patron on Jan 2019. He writes: “We settled in central Wisconsin upon my retirement from the Air Force in 1994.
I got my Technician Class License prior to leaving the military, callsign N9WPH. passed 5-word per minute code test and became Tech Plus. I upgraded to General a couple of years later so I could work HF bands. I upgraded to Extra at Grayslake Hamfest, IL in 2001. I changed to the vanity call N9MO in 2002.
I am active with local club, Marshfield Area Amateur Radio Society (MAARS); AA9US, frequency: 147.18, PL 114.8. I have served in all board positions.
I have an Icom 746 basic model) in the house with a loop antenna and OCD antenna that is made by my friend John – W3IRL. I have an Icom 706 MK2G in the car that is used with a home-made whip antenna made by W3IRL.
Tracy Fig became a patron on 10 May 2019. Tracy is a Realtor in Sacramento County in California and is interested in listening to and understanding ELF signals. Thanks for, Tracy!
Dave Palica, KRØOT
Dave Palica, KRØOT, became a patron on 9 May 2019. He writes: “In 2003 a co-worker asked if I wanted to go to a HAM radio class at BYU. I came home with my tech license (KD7TZG). Radios were out of my price range at that time. Fast forward to Christmas 2018 where Tania, my MUCH better half gifted me a Baofeng. Once I had the radio, I really began to learn. I studied and passed my General in March, and my Extra in April. I’m currently setting up my shack for HF (including digital). I’ve joined two local clubs. One is BYU (I work there). Thanks sharing your passion, time, and talents for all of your awesome videos.They were most helpful.” He also notes he’s run Linux for years, hence the RØOT in the callsign. Thanks for being a Patron, Dave!
David Crandall, became a patron on Jun 2019. Thanks David!
Aaron Blattner, K17AZG
Aaron Blattner, became a patron on Sep 2019. Thanks Aaron!
Benjamin Otto, became a patron on Jun 2019. Thanks Benjamin!
Terry L. Morris,
Terry L. Morris, became a patron on May 2017. Terry writes, “I am a 70 year old computer geek and amateur radio operator on disability retirement after 23 years in law enforcement. I began college in 1969 following 4 years in the U.S. Navy as a meteorologist. I dropped out of college when I married. I have a son from my second marriage; fought for and won custody. I returned to college in 2004 and graduated with honors in 2006. Now that I am too old to be hired, my doctor has given release to return to the work force. Thanks Terry!
Paul became a patron on March 2019. Thanks Paul!
Chris Keller, became a patron on Feb 2017. Thanks Chris!
Larry Hatt, became a patron on Oct 2019. Thanks Larry!
Josh King, became a patron on Oct 2017. Thanks Josh!
William Woodward, Jr. became a patron on April 2016. Thanks William!
Michael Downey, became a patron on June 2016. Thanks Michael!
K5GTE, became a patron on July 2018. They write ” Lover of everything science and space!” Thanks K5GTE!
VK3FSPD, became a patron on 30 Oct 2019. VK3FSPD writes, “I have been licensed here in Australia for almost a year and I will be upgrading to the top tier as soon as I have time. I think I will use your videos to get to extra. We are able to do ve exams here and get that converted to our advanced. I have been looking at your videos (after seeing you with Kevin) and reviews for a while now. I recently received a QRP labs wspr deluxe kit after seeing your video also I got the mfj receive loop. I’m very envious of your new vertical and can’t wait to it on the air. Thank you a 73 Simon VK3FSPD” Thanks Simon!
Ted Talbert, became a patron on Jan 2017. Thanks Ted!
John W Peterson,
John W Peterson, became a patron on Dec 2016. Thanks John!
Mark Aiken, KI5DMA
Mark Aiken, KI5DMA, became a patron on 9 Mar 2019. Mark writes, “I was very interested in amateur radio when I was a teenager. I’ve kept an eye out for new information over the years, but never really pursed the hobby. Now, later in life I’ve got some free time to go after ham radio…. My first realization was that I’ve really been missing out on a lot of fun and radio advancements. I have to thank Dave for all his great videos—and special thanks for the license prep videos. They were foundational for my passing of my technician exam…. Now off to study for the General and watch more of Dave’s great videos there!” Thanks, Mark, and good luck with your studies!
John DiLiberto changed his patronage on 19 Feb 2019. John says, “Dave Casler’s exam prep series were a key component of my preparation for the three amateur radio exams I sat for and passed in 2016. Even the Extra Class license is merely a foundation for the discipline of radio communication, and KE0OG has continued to edify me by sharing his deep expertise in his Ask Dave! series. I like to give where I am blessed, and am honored to be one of Dave’s supporters here on Patreon.” John is also an avid Prepper. Many thanks, John!
Jack R. Dempsey, WB7VTT
Jack R. Dempsey, WB7VTT became a patron on 30 July 2017. Thanks Jack!
Rick Hubbard, KI6VOS
Rick Hubbard, KI6VOS became a patron on 1 Aug 2017. Thanks Rick!
Michael Allen Wilson,
Michael Allen Wilson, became a patron on 2 Jan 2019. Thanks Michael!
h3>Donald Gover, VA6DLG
Donald Gover, VA6DLG became a patron on 24 Aug 2017. Thanks Donald!
Jerry Ryan, K8VGL
Jerry Ryan, K8VGL, became a patron on 1 April 2019. Thanks, Jerry! His QRZ page says, “I received my license in 1960 starting with the Novice as KN8VGL, upgrading through Technician, General and to Advanced that I held for 38 years before final up grade to Extra. I spent my early years on the VHF and UHF spectrum operating all modes, but primarily on 6 and 2 SSB. In 1966 I joined the USAF and spent 4 years in the Ground Radio field including a year in III Corp in Viet Nam. Since that time, my stations have been modest with hidden antennas because of covenants. I operate SSB, some CW and PSK31 on the low bands. Recently I have been trying out the other weak signal modes of WSJ-X. VHF activity is mostly FM on 6, 2 and 440. I am an active member of the Van Wert Amateur Radio Club making very few meetings because of the distance, but always operating in field day with the club. I participate when possible with Marion county ARES of Indianapolis assisting with the annual Mini-Marathon 500, Tour-de-Cure bicycle race and other activities. I retired in 2013 and now have more time for operating. I participate in contests such as Indiana QSO, ARRL VHF, Sweepstakes, and of course Field Day. Hope to meet you on the bands.”
Jim Maloney became a patron on 20 Aug 2018. Thanks Jim!
Jim Record, AD0YO
Jim Record, AD0YO, became a patron on 7 Apr 2018. Thanks Jim!
Rick Hofmann, became a patron on Sep 2019. Thanks Rick!
h3>John Christensen, KI7UXS
John Christensen, KI7UXS, became a patron on 19 July 2018. Thanks John!
Larry Weed, KI5ACA
Larry Weed, KI5ACA became a patron on 15 Dec 2018. Thanks Larry!
Roland Smith, K7OJL
Roland Smith, K7OJL, became a patron on 2 May 2018. Thanks Roland!
Robert Singleton, N5HRK
Robert Singleton, N5HRK, became a patron on 5 Jan 2019. Thanks Robert!
Ronald Terrell, KK6URQ
Ronald Terrell, KK6URQ became a patron on 31 July 2017. Thanks Ronald!
David Crandall, W4DTX
David Crandall, W4DTX, became a patron on 25 June 2019. Thanks, David!
Bernie Nazari, K6NAZ
Bernie Nazari, K6NAZ, became a patron on 12 July 2019. Thanks, Bernie!
David N became a patron on Dec 2017. He writes,”Engineer, avid 3D printer, ham radio operator, runner and cyclist. Thanks David!
Josh King, KI4BHG
Josh King became a patron on 27 July 2018. Thanks Josh!
William A. Rossbach,
William A. Rossbach, became a patron on July 2018. Thanks, William!
Marc Robbins, KB7MBR
Marc Robbins, KB7MBR, became a patron on 11 Aug 2019. He writes, “I have a General Class license. I am studying for my Extra. I became interested in Ham Radio about a year and a half ago. I am planning to build out a modest ham shack next year.” Thanks, Marc!
Kelvin D. Olson
Kelvin became a patron on 26 May, 2019. Thanks Kelvin!
Richard became a patron on 19 December, 2019. Thank Richard!
Old Lion became a patron on 12 November, 2019. Thanks Old Lion!
Scott became a patron on 12 November, 2019. Thanks Scott!
Andas became a patron on 17 November, 2019. Thanks Andas!
Randman became a patron on 10 December, 2019. Thanks Randman!
Thomas John Wills
Thomas became a patron on 19 August, 2019. Thanks Thomas!
Markus became a patron on 16 August, 2019. Thanks Markus!
Richard became a patron on 10 June, 2019. Thanks Richard!
Patrons at the $4/month level
Patrons at the $3/month level
Patrons at the $2/month level
- James Self
- Baset, became a patron on Nov 2017. Thanks Baset!
- Tom Webster, KEØOSI, became a patron on 23 June 2019. Thanks, Tom!
- Richard Butterfoss, became a patron on August 2017. Thanks Richard!
- Robert A Siirila, became a patron on Sep 2019. Thanks Robert!
- James Pierce, became a patron on Feb 2016. Thanks James!
- Sven-Oerjan Larsson, became a patron on June 2018. Sven wrote “Aviator and hamradio operator and builder.” Thanks Sven!
- Edmund F. Schramko, became a patron on July 2018. Thanks Edmund!
- Edward Glynn,became a patron on July 2019. Thanks Edward!
- Brian Liebeg, became a patron on Feb 2017. Thanks Brian!
- Bash Coder, became a patron on Aug 2019. Thanks Bash!
- Itchy Cherry Reagan, became a patron on May 2017. Thanks Itchy!
- David Brubaker, became a patron on May 2017. Thanks David!
- Carey Newsome, became a patron on March 2017. Thanks Carey!
- Mike Robertson, became a patron on Nov 2018. Thanks Mike!
- Andrew Schneider, became a patron on Sep 2019. Thanks Andrew1
- Sam Petri, became a patron on July 2019. Thanks Sam!
- John Piontkowski, became a patron on Oct 2015. Thanks John!
- Bruce Hymon, K8CJM, became a patron on 2 June 2019. Thanks, Bruce!
- Bill Seward, W4EXT, became a patron on 31 May 2016. Thanks, Bill!
- Kevin Rooney, KD2IBJ, became a patron on 1 May 2019. Thanks, Kevin!
- Jon E. Whitney, WJ2E, became a patron on 12 April 2019. Thanks, Jon!
- Bill Lynch, KC8ISN, became a patron on 19 March 2019. Thanks, Bill!
- Jon Moon, KC3KWZ, became a patron on 16 March 2019. Thanks, Jon!
- David S. Burkett became a patron on 8 Jan 2019. Thanks David!
- Grigory Semenov became a patron on 8 July 2017. Thanks Grigory!
- Seer Snively, KM6MWO, became a patron on 5 Oct 2017. Thanks Seer!
- Matt Hinds, became a patron on June 2017. Thanks Matt!
- Mathew Beauchesne, became a patron on Jan 2016. Thanks Matthew!
- Matthew Perry became a patron on 12 Fed 2018. Thanks Matthew!
- Bill Burgner became a patron on 11 Feb 2018. Thanks Bill!
- Mark Hamann, KI7BDA, became patron on 24 Jan 2018. Thanks Mark!
- Luke Purdy, N5LXN, became a patron on 17 Jan 2018. Thanks Luke!
- Mark Brewer, VK2MTB, became a patron on 11 Nov 2018. Thanks Mark!
- Andrew Behesnilian, N0AXB, became a patron on 27 Dec 2018. Thanks Andrew!
- Craig A Bianchini, N4CAB, became a patron on 8 Dec 2018. Thanks Craig!
- Donald Miller, W8JSU, became a patron on 7 Sep 2018. Thanks Donald!
- Graeme Koch, VK3PGK, became a patron on 31 Aug 2018. Thanks Graeme!
- Juan Perez, KX4FJ, became a patron on 17 Aug 2018. Thanks Juan!
- Kerry Kirk, KM4APC, became a patron on 8 Jun 2018. Thanks Kerry!
- Kyle Snavely became a patron on 2 July 2018. Thanks Kyle!
- Tom Webster became a patron on June 2019. Thanks Tom!
- Luis Uribe, KD0FKI, became a patron on 8 Nov 2018. Thanks Luis!
- Nick Siemsen became a patron on 1 May 2018. Thanks Nick!
- Paul Daly, KK6GYW, became a patron on 19 Mar 2018. Thanks Paul!
- Randy Cox, KD9LAD, became a patron on 29 Nov 2018. Thanks Randy!
- Rich R,KC3KXG, became a patron on 16 Aug 2018. Thanks Rich!
- Richard, became a patron on July 2017. Thanks Richard!
- Rick Meehan, KE5VIA, became a patron on 20 Aug 2018. Thanks Rick!
- Seer Snively, became a patron on June 2017. Thanks Seer!
- Skip W Brown became a patron on Sep 2019. Thanks Skip!
- Stephen Dowler, K0HAY, became a patron on 17 Dec 2018. Thanks Stephen!
- Laura Tunnell became a patron on 2 Nov 2017, Thanks, Laura!
- SMc became a patron on March 2018, Thanks SMc!
- John Panocast became a patron on March, 2018. Thanks John!
- Jacob Mariam became a patron on March, 2019. Thanks Jacob!
- Jack Moerman became a patron on September, 2018. Thanks Jack!
- Steven Behnke became a patron on January, 2020. Thanks Steven!
- Gail Lipfert became a patron on January, 2020. Thanks Gail!
- MajorHandTool became a patron on Januaray, 2020. Thanks Major!
- Andy became a patron on December, 2019. Thanks Andy!
- Walt Beattie became a patron on December, 2019. Thanks Walt!
- David Huffman became a patron on October, 2019. Thanks David!
- Brian Slota became a patron on October, 2012. Thanks Brian!
- Dtpostel became a patron on August, 2019. Thanks Dtpostel!
- Dave became a patron on June, 2019. Thanks Dave!
Dave Slotter, W3DJSDave Slotter, W3DJS, became a patron on 10 March 2019 and upgraded to the $2/month level on 21 April 2019. On 4 July 2019 he became the first to use the new PayPal-based “Subscriber” method at the $20/month “Underwriter” level, plus continues his support via Patreon at the $2/month level. His QRZ page says, “I am a member of the Gwinnett Amateur Radio Society, North Fulton Amateur Radio League, FT8 Digital Mode Club, and life member of the ARRL. I was licensed as a general class operator in 2015. As of 2/2019, I am studying for amateur extra.” Thanks, Dave, for your continuing support, and good luck with your studies for Amateur Extra!
James Self became a patron on 20 Oct 2018. Thanks James!
Patrons at the $1/month level
- Eric Calder became a patron on 22 March 2019. Thanks, Eric!
- David Garcia, KD2BNT, became a patron on 17 March 2019. Thanks David!
- Daniel Bartholomew, AG4DB, became a patron on 12 Apr 2018. Thanks Daniel!
- Rolando Picardo Hernaldo, N4ACE, became a patron on 24 Oct 2018. Thanks Matt!
- Paul Little, KI5DGN, became a patron on March, 2019. Thank you Paul!